Although there is much debate about the history of domestic horses, research indicates that horses were first domsticated by the Botai Culture of Kazakhstan around 6000-5500 BC and suggests that domestic horses may have been kept for food and milk as analysis of organic residues found in broken pots found traces of horse milk.
Domestic horses bred with local wild horses and spread throughout Europe and Asia and throughout their history, horses have been interbred, traded between populations of people, and moved across continents.
The earliest evidence that horses may have been used under harness or for riding dates to around 3500-3000 BC concluded from bit wear seen on the teeth of horses found in Kazakhstan. Drawings of horses pulling chariots were found in Mesopotamia, dated about 2000 BC and the earliest records of horses being ridden were found on a terracotta mould from Mesopotamia dating to around 2000-1800 BC, and in paintings in a tomb in Egypt dated to 1600-1400 BC.
The first written text about the horse was produced in 1400 BC and concerned the training of chariot horses and around 360 BC Xenophon wrote "The Art of Horsemanship", which is still relevant for today and covers riding the horse as well as its care and the psychology of the horse.
The domestication of the horse has had a significant impact on transport, agriculture, communication and warfare throughout human history.